Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2023-11-15T10:06:56+01:00 Margarita Elvira-Recuenco. SJAR Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research (SJAR)</strong> is an open access scientific journal published by <a href="">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a href="">Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria</a>. <strong>SJAR </strong>publishes papers reporting research findings on the following topics: agricultural economics; agricultural engineering; agricultural environment and ecology; animal breeding, genetics and reproduction; animal health and welfare; animal production; plant breeding, genetics and genetic resources; plant physiology; plant production (field and horticultural crops); plant protection; soil science; and water management. <strong>SJAR</strong> is not publishing articles on “food science and technology”, “postharvest”, or “socioeconomic studies”.</p> <p>Formerly known as “Investigación Agraria”, <strong>SJAR</strong> merged in 2003 from two series: “Producción y Protección Vegetales” and “Producción y Sanidad Animales” founded in 1985. The predecessor of them was “Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agronómicas”, first published in 1952. <strong>SJAR</strong> began to be available online in 2003, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2015. That year it became an electronic-only journal with no print equivalent publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS formats.</p> <p><strong>Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research</strong> is indexed in <a href="">Web of Science</a>, <a href="">SCOPUS</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (2 years): <strong>0.900</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (5 years): <strong>1.400</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF:</strong> <strong>40</strong>/58 (Q3, Agriculture, Multidisciplinary)<br>Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2022: <strong>0.29</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI:</strong> <strong>46</strong>/85 (Q3, Agriculture, Multidisciplinary)<br>Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.00080</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.205</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Agriculture, Multidisciplinary<br>Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 20px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Diamond Open Access</p> <p class="check">No Article Proccesing Charges</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Reviewer Credits</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Effect of operational parameters on the performance of a kenaf harvester 2023-11-15T09:51:46+01:00 Thomas A. AYORINDE Oseni K. OWOLARAFE <p><em>Aim of study: </em>To develop a kenaf harvesting technology, that will improve kenaf production efficiency. This study evaluated the effect of some operation parameters on the performance of a tractor-mounted kenaf (<em>Hibiscus cannabinus </em>L<em>.</em>) harvester.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: The experiment was performed at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: The experiment was initiated after 10 weeks of planting kenaf on the experimental field. The experimental design was a 3 × 4 × 5 experiment evaluating the effect of kenaf maturity (average stem diameter at week after planting (WAP) 10, 12, 14 and 16), kenaf varieties (‘Cuba 108’, ‘Ifeken 400’ and ‘Ifeken Di 400’) and forward speed of the tractor (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5 and 7.7 km/h) on effective field capacity, field efficiency, and operational loses of the machine.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: The effective field capacity of the machine decreased with increase in plant maturity and increased with increase in forward speed of the machine. The optimal value of the effective field capacity was 2.13 ha/day, when harvesting ‘Ifeken 400’, at crop maturity of 10 WAP, and forward speed was 5 km/h. The field efficiency of the machine was found to decrease with increase in crop maturity and forward speed of the machine. The field efficiency of the machine was 97%, with ‘Ifeken 400’ crop maturity of 10 WAP and forward speed of 2 km/h.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> The crop maturity, kenaf variety and forward speed of tractor have effect on the effective field capacity, field efficiency and the operational loss of the tractor-mounted kenaf harvester</p> 2023-09-19T07:50:05+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INIA-CSIC Analysis of soil compaction induced beneath the working depth due to tilling action of different active tillage machinery 2023-11-15T09:51:45+01:00 Kumari NISHA Ganesh UPADHYAY Bharat PATEL Naresh SIHAG Swapnil CHOUDHARY Vijaya RANI <p><em>Aim of study: </em>To quantify the data regarding soil compaction induced beneath the tillage working depth purely due to the tilling action of the different active tillage machinery in sandy loam soil.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Research Farm, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: The data were quantified in terms of cone index (CI), bulk density, and porosity. Its comparison was also made with conventional practice followed by the farmers, involving only passive-tillage tools (i.e. cultivator and disc harrow). The results did not represent the tractor-imposed soil compaction under the tires.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Main results</em>: The maximum soil compaction beneath the working depth in terms of increment in soil CI occurred with rotavator followed by conventional practice, PTO-operated disc tiller, and power harrow, which are in the range of 6.67-7.05%, 5.17-5.29%, 4.29-4.97%, and 2.08-2.36%, respectively. The increment in bulk density was similar to that as mentioned above with values in the range of 3.96-4.06%, 2.30-2.42%, 1.71-1.88%, and 1.31-1.40%, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum decrement in soil porosity occurred with rotavator followed by conventional practice, PTO-operated disc tiller, and power harrow which were in the range of 5.67-6.61%, 2.74-2.94%, 1.71-1.88%, and 2.06-2.25%, respectively.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> The active tillage rotary machinery cause soil compaction due to the applied compressive force on the soil during their tilling action. They create optimal topsoil tilth but can compact deeper soil due to blade speed, necessitating the selection of ideal rotational and forward speeds to minimize this compaction.</p> 2023-09-26T14:58:34+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INIA-CSIC Dynamics of carbon budget and meteorological factors of a typical maize ecosystem in Songnen Plain, China 2023-11-15T09:51:43+01:00 Yonggang GAO Ming WANG Lanqi JIANG Fang ZHAO Feng GAO Huiying ZHAO <p><em>Aim of study: </em>Understanding the carbon budget and meteorological factor impacts of farmland ecosystems is helpful for scientific assessment of carbon budget and low-carbon agricultural production practices.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: The Songnen Plain, NE China, in 2019.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em><strong>:</strong> Based on eddy-related flux and soil heterotrophic respiration observations from a typical maize farmland ecosystem, using mathematical statistics and carbon balance equation methods, were analyzed.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: Soil respiration rate (<em>R</em><sub>s</sub>) and composition were influenced and controlled by the synergistic effect of surface soil temperature (<em>T</em><sub>s</sub>) and water content (<em>W</em><sub>cs</sub>). <em>T</em><sub>s</sub> played a leading role, while <em>W</em><sub>cs</sub> played an important role. <em>T</em><sub>s</sub> and <em>W</em><sub>cs</sub> had the greatest influence on the heterotrophic respiration rate (<em>R</em><sub>h</sub>), followed by <em>R</em><sub>s</sub> and autotrophic respiration rate (<em>R</em><sub>a</sub>). Daily variations of net ecosystem productivity were correlated with daily mean air temperature, latent heat flux, and sensible heat flux. Annual carbon revenue was 1139.67 g C m<sup>-2</sup>, annual carbon expenditure was 456.14 g C m<sup>-2</sup>, and annual carbon budget was -683.53 g C m<sup>-2</sup> in 2019. While considering that maize grain yield (-353.44 g C m<sup>-2</sup>) was moved out of the field at harvest, the net ecosystem carbon balance was -330.09 g C m<sup>-2</sup>; then it was carbon sink in 2019. By fully utilizing climate resources and improving agricultural managements, carbon sink is increased in farmland ecosystems.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> Soil respiration rate and composition were influenced and controlled by the synergistic effect of soil temperature and water content; the maize farmland ecosystem is carbon sink.</p> 2023-10-26T10:34:44+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Clinical course and pathogenicity of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolate from scimitar oryx (Oryx dammah) in experimentally infected rabbits 2023-11-15T09:51:45+01:00 Edith MALDONADO-CASTRO Ana L. HERNÁNDEZ-REYES Beatriz ARELLANO-REYNOSO Carlos G. GUTIÉRREZ Marta ALONSO-HEARN Gilberto CHÁVEZ-GRIS <p><em>Aim of study: </em>To evaluate the infectivity of a MAP type C of a scimitar oryx (<em>Oryx dammah</em>) - included in an international conservation list - that showed clinical signs and granulomatous enteritis associated with paratuberculosis in rabbits (<em>Oryctolagus cuniculus</em>) using molecular, bacteriological and pathological methodologies.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: The study was made in Tequisquiapan, Queretaro, CEIEPAA, FMVZ, UNAM, Mexico.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: Three 6-week-old female New Zealand rabbits were orally infected for 3 consecutive days with 10<sup>9</sup> CFU of the MAP isolate. Blood and fecal samples were collected every 2 weeks for a total period of 28 weeks. IS<em>900</em> PCR in blood and F57 real-time PCR in the feces were performed every 2 weeks and pathological analysis and bacteriological culture from tissue were made 28 weeks post infection.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: MAP was detected by IS<em>900</em> PCR in the blood of two of the three animals after 2 weeks of infection and again by F57 real-time PCR in the feces of the three infected rabbits. Infection with the MAP isolates in feces at 22 and 28 weeks post infection in one rabbit and isolate of vermiform appendix resulted in the development of granulomatous lesions in the three rabbits. The lesions were diffuse intermediate in one animal and multifocal in the other two rabbits.</p> <p><em>Research highlights: </em>Overall, these results demonstrated the infectivity of a MAP isolate from the scimitar oryx in rabbits.</p> 2023-09-27T09:47:23+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INIA-CSIC Heat stress induced in vitro affects cell viability and gene expression of dermal fibroblasts from bovine and buffalo 2023-11-15T09:51:44+01:00 Natasha P. BORGES Eduardo B. SOUZA Simone S. D. SANTOS Otávio M. OHASHI Priscila P. B. SANTANA Ednaldo SILVA-FILHO <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To evaluate the response of dermal fibroblasts to heat stress and different time exposures on the cell survival and gene expression.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Belém city, Pará state. Brazil.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: Fibroblasts were isolated from ear skin of bovine (n<em>=</em> 4) and buffalo (n<em>=</em> 4), cultured in vitro until the 3<sup>rd</sup> passage and submitted to heat stress at 42°C for 3, 6 and 12 h, except for the negative control (38.5°C for 24 h). Cell survival was measured using Trypan blue, and RNA isolation was performed using Trizol method following qRT-PCR to quantify the relative expression of the inducible heat shock protein <em>HSPA1A</em>, the pro-apoptotic <em>BAX</em> and pro-inflammatory <em>IFN-γ</em> genes.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: Heat stress induced in vitro affected the cell viability and gene expression in a time-dependent manner. Gene expression was relatively lower in buffalo (p<em>&lt;</em>0.05) than in bovine. Until 3 h of heat stress, <em>HSPA1A</em> showed a slight increase in both bovine and buffaloes, and <em>BAX</em> was 5.82-fold greater in bovine (p&lt;0.05). After 6 h, <em>HSPA1A</em> was 75.81-fold (p&lt;0.0001) and <em>INF-γ</em> was 20.15-fold greater (p&lt;0.05) in bovine than buffalo. Only after 6 h the cell viability started to decrease significantly (p&lt;0.05) in both species.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Dermal fibroblasts of buffaloes and bovine were sensitive to heat stress induced in vitro, which was most detrimental to cell survival after 6 h. The expression of <em>HSPA1A</em>, <em>BAX </em>and <em>INF-γ </em>genes in response to heat stress indicate a slight sensibility of the dermal fibroblasts of bovine compared to their buffalo counterpart.</p> 2023-10-12T10:39:17+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Potential land use of Cantabria for grass-fed milk production 2023-11-15T09:51:45+01:00 Ibán VÁZQUEZ-GONZÁLEZ Francisca RUIZ-ESCUDERO Juan BUSQUÉ Ana VILLAR <p><em>Aim of study: </em>To analyse the territorial potential of Cantabria to produce grass-fed milk.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Cantabria (N Spain) is a territory associated with livestock, in particular cattle and grasslands. Over the last few decades, the livestock sector has been immersed in a process of structural adjustment, leading to a reduction in the number of farms, an increase in their size and the intensification of production. Moreover, the market is being increasingly supplied with milk labelled “grass fed”, due to growing consumer interest in healthier and more environmentally friendly products.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: To do this, 99 livestock farms were classified according to the percentage of fresh grass (FG) in the spring diet of the lactating cows (non-grass-fed: &lt;25% FG; grass-fed: ≥25% FG); these were characterized and, subsequently, a multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to estimate the percentage of FG based on 41 territorial variables.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: The predicted feeding model had an accuracy rate of 70.7%, and discriminated better the non-grass-fed, it had some limitations, suggesting that territorial structure is important but not enough to differentiate grass-fed milk. In addition, 33% of the farms studied produce grass-fed milk, but only half do so under territorial conditions typically associated with this type of production. Meanwhile, 12% of the farms, with similar territorial conditions, do not carry out this type of production (grass fed).</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> To support grass-fed production, other internal, cultural or economic values must be taken into account.</p> 2023-09-28T18:32:18+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INIA-CSIC Animal performance, carcass characteristics and beef quality of steers fed with a whole oat or maize grain-based diet 2023-11-15T09:51:44+01:00 María Sol VILLAVERDE Ayelén MAYO Hugo M. ARELOVICH Rodrigo D. BRAVO Mariano MENGHINI Marcela F. MARTÍNEZ <p><em>Aim of study:</em> We evaluated the use of oat grain as an alternative source of energy to maize grain in high energy finishing diets. Maize crop production in arid and semi-arid areas is poor or non-existent. Thus, small grains such as oats have become an alternative in high energy rations due to their versatility and ease of cultivation.</p> <p><em>Area of study: </em>Semiarid region of Buenos Aires province, Argentina</p> <p><em>Material and methods:</em> Sixteen Angus steers were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments based on whole oats grain (OD) or whole maize grain (MD) for 61 days. Diets were formulated iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic. Animal performance, carcass attributes and beef quality traits were evaluated. <em>Longissimus thoracis</em> steaks were wet-aged at 4°C for either 4 or 14 days.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> Similar results were found between OD and MD for the variables of performance, carcass evaluation and water retention in fresh meat. No interactions between diet and ageing period were found for any of the variables evaluated. The MD beef was lighter and had a redder appearance than the OD beef. The 4 days-aged beef showed higher values of L*, a* and b* and was more saturated than the 14 days-aged beef. However, the perception of beef colour by the human eye, evaluated through the CIEDE2000 metric, showed no differences among diets and ageing periods.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> Oat grain could be used in replacement of maize grain as an energy source in fattening rations of beef cattle, obtaining similar animal performance and meat quality.</p> 2023-09-29T11:22:17+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INIA-CSIC Effects of dietary supplementation with garlic powder (Allium sativum L.) on broiler performance, carcass traits, lymphoid organ development and intestinal biometrics 2023-11-15T09:51:44+01:00 Marcos V. M. MORAIS Renata M. SOUZA Alexandre T. FERREIRA Lucíola F. BARROS Lucca G. B. PEREIRA Tailson J. A. RODRIGUES <p><em>Aim of study: </em>To assess the effects of dietary supplementation with garlic (<em>Allium sativum </em>L<em>.</em>) powder as a growth-promoting additive on the productive performance, carcass traits, intestinal biometrics, and lymphoid organ development of broilers.</p> <p><em>Area of study:</em> Machado, Minas Gerais, southeast region of Brazil.</p> <p><em>Material and methods:</em> A total of 660 one-day-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 g/kg garlic powder), 6 replications, and 22 animals per experimental unit during 42 days of production, divided into phases: initial (1 to 7 days), growth (8 to 22 days), and finishing (23 to 42 days).</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> In the total production period, the birds that were fed rations containing 5, 7.5 and 10 g/kg garlic powder showed increased weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p&lt;0.05). Among the carcass yield variables, live weight and carcass yield showed a positive linear effect (p&lt;0.05). Birds supplemented with garlic powder showed increased weight (p&lt;0.05) and relative length of the small intestine (p&lt;0.05). The absolute weight of the lymphoid organs, thymus and bursa of Fabricius, and the relative weight of the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen also increased linearly with the level of dietary supplementation with garlic powder (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> Dietary supplementation with 5 g/kg and higher concentrations of garlic powder is recommended as a growth promoter for broilers because this feed additive enhances lymphoid organ development, improves intestinal biometric variables and consequently maximises the productive performance and carcass yield of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age.</p> 2023-10-12T19:21:04+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides and coated calcium butyrate on performance, carcass parameters, blood biochemistry and meat quality of growing Japanese quails 2023-11-15T09:51:43+01:00 Erinc GUMUS Behlul SEVIM Osman OLGUN Seher KUCUKERSAN <p><em>Aim of study</em>: Despite previous research into mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) and calcium butyrate coated with palm oil (CCB) in poultry, there is a notable gap in the literature regarding the effects of these feed additives, either individually or in combination, on the growth performance, carcass values, blood biochemistry, immune response, and meat quality of growing Japanese quails.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Türkiye</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: A total of 168 mixed-sex one-day-old quails were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups, with each group containing 7 birds per cage. The control group was fed a basal diet, while the treatment groups received the following additives: 1 g/kg of CCB, 2 g/kg of MOS, and a combination of MOS+CCB added to the basal diet, respectively.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: None of the treatments had a significant impact on performance, relative organ weights, total protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein lipase concentrations in blood serum, or humoral immunity on day 28. However, the inclusion of MOS and CCB in the diet, either individually or in combination, increased carcass yield and reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood serum. Additionally, these additives helped maintain optimal pH levels and lower malondialdehyde concentrations in the breast meat. Moreover, the combination of MOS + CCB significantly improved water holding capacity and antibody titers against the Newcastle Disease vaccine on day 42 in Japanese quails.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: The natural feed additives CCB and MOS contribute to enhanced carcass yield, improved meat quality, and strengthened humoral immunity, while simultaneously lowering lipid values in the bloodstream.</p> 2023-10-25T10:57:27+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Crop load management in high density apple plantation 2023-11-15T09:51:43+01:00 Shivani SHARMA Pramod VERMA Naveen C. SHARMA <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To optimize the best thinning method and elucidate its effect on fruit size, quality, yield and return bloom in apple under high density plantation in sub-temperate zone of India.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: The experiment consisted of 30 combinations of 10 thinning (chemical and manual) treatments (T<sub>1</sub>: 10 mg L<sup>-1</sup> NAA; T<sub>2</sub>: 20 mg L<sup>-1</sup> NAA; T<sub>3</sub>: 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup> BA; T<sub>4</sub>: 200 mg L<sup>-1</sup> BA; T<sub>5</sub>: 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup> Metamitron; T<sub>6</sub>: 200 mg L<sup>-1</sup> Metamitron; T<sub>7</sub>: crop load of 4 fruits cm<sup>-2</sup> TCSA; T<sub>8</sub>: crop load of 6 fruits cm<sup>-2</sup> TCSA; T<sub>9</sub>: crop load of 8 fruits cm<sup>-2</sup> TCSA and T<sub>10</sub>: control - no thinning) and 3 cultivars treatments (‘Jeromine’, ‘Redlum Gala’ and ‘Super Chief’), replicated five times over three growing seasons (2020 to 2022).</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> The highest return bloom, fruit size, red skin color (RSC), sugars content, and anthocyanin content were produced due to manual thinning while maintaining a crop load of 4-6 fruits cm<sup>-2</sup> TCSA (trunk cross sectional area). ‘Jeromine’ cultivar produced fruits with better yields, productivity, and RSC. ‘Redlum Gala’ had fruits with a better extent of thinning, return bloom, and sugar content. The extent of thinning showed a significant positive correlation with return bloom, fruit quality and physicochemical parameters, and growth in apples under high-density plantations.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: A possible threshold for optimal fruit quality and consistent return bloom is around 4-6 fruits cm<sup>-2</sup> TCSA in apple under high density plantation in India.</p> 2023-10-30T09:34:59+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Larvicidal effect of an N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamides-rich extract of Salmea scandens on fall armyworm 2023-11-15T09:51:44+01:00 Mary Carmen PACHECO-ESTEVA Delia SOTO-CASTRO Jaime RUIZ-VEGA María Eugenia OCHOA Pedro MONTES-GARCÍA <p><em>Aim of study</em>: To determine if secondary metabolites present in an ethanolic extract of <em>Salmea scandens</em> could be considered as a viable alternative for the control of fall armyworm (<em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em> larvae), as this is the most important maize pest in terms of economic losses to agriculture worldwide<em>.</em></p> <p><em>Area of study:</em> <em>S. scandens </em>shrubs were collected in San Rafael Toltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. The laboratory assays were conducted at CIIDIR Oaxaca, and preliminary field assay was carried out in Zaachila Oaxaca.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-dodecatetraenamides-rich extract of <em>S. scandens</em>, corroborated by nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H NMR and <sup>13</sup>C NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), was obtained from <em>S. scandens</em> by 10-day maceration in ethanol. The effect of the extract on the mortality of <em>S. frugiperda</em> larvae was investigated in the laboratory (in vitro) by topical application, and in the field (in situ), testing both topical and spraying applications.</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> The <sup>1</sup>H NMR, <sup>13</sup>C NMR and FTIR spectra evidenced the obtention of the alkylamides-rich ethanol extract of <em>S. scandens</em>. Mortality of <em>S. frugiperda</em> in vitro increased with dose and monitoring time, reaching up to 80%. Under field conditions 63% of mortality was recorded at a dose of 0.30 mg µL<sup>-1</sup> per larva by topical application, and 49% by spray application at a dose of 0.15 mg µL<sup>-1</sup> per larva.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: The ethanolic extract of <em>S. scandens</em> can be considered a viable alternative for controlling fall armyworm <em>S. frugiperda</em>.</p> 2023-10-10T13:57:18+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Intermittence in irrigation management and nitrogen optimize yield and water use efficiency in baby lettuce 2023-11-15T09:51:43+01:00 Laércio S. PEREIRA João C. C. SAAD Antonio I. I. CARDOSO Marcelo A. SILVA Carlos J. G. S. LIMA Everaldo M. SILVA <p><em>Aim of the study</em><em>:</em> To evaluate the influence of irrigation management strategies and nitrogen (N) on baby lettuce growth, yield, and water use efficiency in a protected environment.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em><em>: </em>Botucatu, SP, Brazil.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em><em>:</em> The experiments were conducted in two consecutive cycles, and the treatments corresponded to the combination of irrigation management strategies with N doses. Irrigation strategies comprised 3 possibilities: continuous irrigation (Cont); intermittent irrigation with three irrigation pulses at one-hour intervals (Int1); and intermittent irrigation with irrigation depth split and applied at 7:00, 11:00, and 15:00 h (Int2). Two N doses were evaluated, 100 and 130 kg/ha of N, applied in daily fertigation according to the irrigation management strategies.</p> <p><em>Main results</em><em>:</em> Intermittent irrigation strategies (Int1 and Int2) promoted the highest vegetative growth, increased leaf water content, and increased total yield (49.55 and 55.30; 46.83 and 49.50 t/ha) and marketable yield (46.77 and 52.44; 45.11 and 47.17 t/ha) in the first and second cycles, respectively, in addition to optimizing water use efficiency. The N dose of 130 kg/ha increased the total yield (51.61 t/ha), marketable yield (48.98 t/ha), and water use efficiencies of total yield (53.60 kg/m³) and marketable yield (50.88 kg/m³) only in the first crop cycle.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em><em>:</em> The use of intermittence in irrigation management proved to be more efficient in obtaining high yields and maximized the efficiency of use of water as a factor of production.</p> 2023-11-02T09:45:11+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Editorial Board 21 (4) 2023-11-15T10:06:56+01:00 Journal Editorial Office SJAR 2023-11-15T10:05:52+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)