Development of a Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) risk evaluation methodology for a processing tomato region
A risk map for the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was elaborated for the main Portuguese processing tomato producing region, the “Ribatejo e Península de Setúbal” region, where periodically this virus causes severe losses. Forty nine tomato fields were monitored. Risk factors for TSWV infection were identified and quantified according to their relative importance in TSWV incidence. The risk factors considered for each field were: (1) presence of TSWV in the crop plants; (2) presence of TSWV in weeds which are hosts of TSWV vectors; (3) presence of TSWV vector thrips; (4) presence of TSWV host crops previously (in the two years before), namely, tomato, potato and sweet pepper; (5) presence of greenhouses, urban areas or TSWV host crops next to the field (up to about 100m from its borders). A risk estimator was calculated for each field. Among the thrips (Thysanoptera) identified, belonging to 11 genera, four vector thrips species were detected: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Thrips tabaci Lindman, the two most abundant ones, and F. intonsa (Trybom) and F. schultzei (Trybom). Blue sticky traps placed up to about 75 cm above the crop canopy caught F. occidentalis and T. tabaci more efficiently than the beating technique. The weeds Datura stramonium L., Arctotheca calendula (L.), and Conyza bonariensis (L.) were identified as TSWV winter repositories. This study proposes a methodology to be used by field technicians for the annual evaluation of TSWV risk at a regional level, for an improved planning of processing tomato crop in the following season.
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