Climatic regionalization of wine grapes in the Hengduan Mountain region of China

  • Yanjun Wang Northwest A&F University, College of Enology, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 Xinjiang Agricultural University, College of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Science, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052
  • Lei Wang Northwest A&F University, College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100
  • Xu Liu Northwest A&F University, College of Enology, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100
  • Yashan Li Chuxiong Normal University, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Chuxiong, Yunnan 675000
  • Xueqiu Wang Northwest A&F University, College of Enology, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100
  • Yulin Fang Northwest A&F University, College of Enology, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100
Keywords: active accumulated temperature, dryness index, digital elevation model, multiple regression


The Hengduan Mountain region of China is one of the world's highest altitude and lowest latitude wine grape cultivation areas. This study screened the existing regional indexes; the active accumulated temperature (AAT) for grapes in the growing season was chosen as the heat index, and the dryness index (DI) in the growing season was chosen as the water index for climatic regionalization. An analysis of 90-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data and the corresponding slope degree and direction for the Hengduan Mountain region in the range of 97°E-103°E, 27°N-33°N, as well as daily meteorological data over 30 years (1981-2010) from 53 stations in the study region, were used to establish the AAT and DI models for the northern area of the Hengduan Mountains. According to the multiple stepwise regression method, the interaction terms among different geographical and topographic factors were considered. In addition, the residual errors were interpolated and corrected based on the modeling, and this approach further improved the simulation accuracy of meteorological factors. A regional climatic map of wine grapes was produced according to these results. The model was used to calculate the suitable altitude range for wine grape cultivation in different regions of the Hengduan Mountains. The study shows that the distribution of suitable wine grape cultivation areas in the northern part of the mountain range generally mimics distribution of dry warm and dry hot valleys. The accuracy of the results was confirmed based on the existing locations of vineyards in the Hengduan Mountain region.


Download data is not yet available.


Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D,Smith M, 1998. Crop evapotranspiration guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrig Drain Paper 56. FAO, Rome.

Amerine MA, Winkler AJ, 1944. Composition and quality of musts and wines of California grapes. Hilgardia 15: 493-675.

Bock A, Sparks TH, Estrella N, Menzel A, 2013. Climate-induced changes in grapevine yield and must sugar content in Franconia (Germany) between 1805 and 2010. PLos One 8 (7): 69015.

Bolstad PV,Swift L,Collins F, Régnière J, 1998. Measured and predicted air temperatures at basin to regional scales in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Agr Meteorol 91:161-176.

Coombe F, 1982. Indices of sugar-acidity as ripeness criteria for grapes. Sci Food Agric 31: 495-502.

Ding YG, Yu JH, Shi N, 2001. Quasi-biennial oscillation variability in interannual variance ofthe global surface temperature during the last 100-year period. Chin J Atmosph Sci 01: 89-102.

Fang SB, 2004. Application of RS, GIS and GPS in survey of returning farmland to forest or grass land and in the making decision in the dry valleys of the Western Sichuan, China. Chengdu University of Technology (in Chinese with English abstract).

Fo BP, 1992. The effects of topography and elevation on precipitation. Acta Geographica Sinica 1992-04 (in Chinese).

Gan PQ, 2007. Geographic discretion about the Hengduan Mountains. Western China Z2:1-4. (in Chinese).

Gao YY, Liu Q, Wang HR, Xu XY, Shi QY, 2012. Definition Dry valleys scope by RS and GIS. J Beijing Normal Univ (Nat Sci) 01: 92-96+2 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Germann U, Joss J, 2000. Spatial continuity of Alpine precipitation. Phys Chem Earth (B) 25: 903-908.

Goodin WR, Mcrae GJ, Seinfeld JH, 1979. A comparison of interpolation methods for sparse data: Application to wind and concentration field. J Appl Meteorol 8: 761-771.<0761:ACOIMF>2.0.CO;2

He PC, 1999. Enology. China Agriculture Press 59-72. Beijing (in Chinese).

Helder F, Inaki GC, Aureliano CM, Joao AS, 2016. Modelling climate change impacts on viticultural yield, phenology and stress conditions in Europe. Global Change Biol 22: 3774–3778.

Huglin P, 1978. Nouveau mode d'evaluation des possibilities heliothermiques d'un milieu viticole [A],Ecologie de la Vigne [C]. C.R.Ier Symp. Int. Ecologie Vigne, pp: 89-97.

Huo XS, 2006. Study of the zoning thermal indexes of the grapevine and viticulture zoning in china. Northwest A&F University, Yangling (in Chinese with English abstract).

Jarvis CH, Stuart N, 2001. A comparison among strategies for interpolating maximum and minimum daily air temperatures. Part II; The interaction between number of guiding variables and the type of interpolation method. J Appl Meteorol 40: 1075-1084.<1075:ACASFI>2.0.CO;2

Joao AS, Ricardo C, Helder F 2017. Climate change impacts on thermal growing conditions of main fruit species in Portugal. Climate Change 140: 273-286.

Keller M, 2010. The science of grapevines: Anatomy and physiology. Elsevier, Inc., Amsterdam. pp: 311-368.

Kong YF, Tong WW, 2008. Spatial exploration and interpolation of the surface precipitation data. Geograph Res 05: 1097-1108 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Kravchenko A, Zhang RD, Tung YK, 1996. Estimation of mean annual precipitation in Wyoming using geostatistical analysis. Proc Am Geophys Union 16th Annual Hydrology Days, pp: 271-282.

Li H, 1987. A high quality wine grape eco-climatic region, Xiaojin, Sichuan Provinces. Sino-Overseas Grapevine & Wine 01: 17-20 (in Chinese).

Li H, Huo XS, 2006a. Atmospheric moisture content index in climatic zoning of grapevine cultivation in China. Chin J Ecol 09: 1124-1128 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Li H, Huo XS, 2006b. Study of the zoning thermal indexes of the grapevine. Journal of Northwest Sci-tech University of Agriculture and Forestry 12: 69-73 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Li H, Wang H, Wang YJ, 2015. The climatic zoning and variety zoning of grapevine in China. 9th Int. Symp. on Viticulture and Enology, pp: 1-10 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Li XQ, Chen HY, Ma HY, Zhang YC, 2011. Wine grapes regionalization in aba. Aba Sci & Technol 8601: 13-18 (in Chinese).

Liu W, Zhang H, Luo LY, Huang DR, Zhong Q, Tang L, 2015. Study on ecological suitability of wine-grape growing in different valleys. J Anhui Agric Sci 10: 6-8, 20 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Liu Y,Zou SB, 2006. A study on the distributing climatic models in arid mountainous area—distributing temperature and precipitation models in high spatial resolution in the Qilian Mountains. Joumal of Lanzhou Univ (Nat Sci) 42 (1):7-12 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Luo Q, Li DL, Zhang J, 2007. Development of distribution model of precipitation in rainy season in the East Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Arid Zone Res 06: 6766-6772.

Ma CH, Shao JH, Cai JL, Yao Y, Wang H, 2011. The unique features of grape and grape wine in Yunnan. Liquor-Making Sci & Technol 07: 123-125 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Naoum S, Tsanis IK, 2004. Orographic precipitation modeling with multiple linear regression 9: 79-102.

Ollinger SV, Aber JD, Federer AC, Lovett GM, Ellis JM, 1995. Modeling physical and chemical climate of the northeastern United States for a geographic information system. Technical Report. USDA, NY.

Orduna RM, 2010. Climate change associated effects on grape and wine quality and production. Food Res Int 43: 1844-1855.

Palomino I, Martin F, 1995. A simple method for spatial interpolation of the wind in complex terrain. J Appl Meteorol 34: 1678-1693.

Santos JA, Malheiro AC, Karremann MK, Pinto JG, 2011. Statistical modelling of grapevine yield in the Port Wine region under present and future climate conditions. Int J Biometeorol 55: 119-131.

Shi SQ, Chen YQ, Li ZG, Yang P, Wu WB, Tang F, 2011. Study on land productivity potential of maize in Jilin Province based on spatial interpolation technique and auxiliary information. Agric Res Arid Areas 04: 408-414 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Shu SJ,Yu ZF,Wang Y,Bai M, 2005. A statistic model for the spatial distribution of precipitation estimation over Tibet complex terrain. Chin J Geophysics 48 (3): 535-542 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Shu SJ, Wang Y, Li Y, 2006. Effect of topographic perturbation on the precipitation distribution in Tibetan Plateau. Adv Water Sci 05: 585-591 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Shu SJ, Wang Y, Xiong AY, 2007. Estimation and analysis for geographic and orographic influences on precipitation distribution in China.Chin J Geophysics 50 (6):81-90 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Shu SJ, Wang Y, Chu HY, 2009. Spatial distribution of temperature in China: Geographic and orographic influences. J Nanjing Univ (Nat Sci) 45 (18603): 334-342 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Sun H, Tang Y, Huang XJ, Huang CM, 2005. Present situations and its R&D of dry valleys in the Hengduan Mountains of SW China. World Sci-Tech R&D 03: 54-61 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Wang JL, Sun JS, Zhou ZH, Zhang JY, 2005. A method for evaluation crop water requirements based on digital elevation model (DEM). J Irrig Drain 05: 36-38 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Weng DM, Luo ZX, 1990. Topographic climatic in mountains. Meteorol Press pp: 144-240, Beijing (in Chinese).

Xu KJ, Zhang BP, 2008. Natural and cultural diversity in the Grand Shangri-La Region. J Mount Sci 02: 212-217 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Xu XT, Jie YW, Ma JH, 2006. Modeling of temperature and precipitation distribution in Xinglong Mountain Area. Remote Sens Technol Applic 04: 317-321 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Xu YH, 1991. The climate in southwestern China. China Meteorological Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

Yang S, Sun GJ, He WY, Zhao H, Li FM, Xiong YC, 2011. Correlation of topographic factors with precipitation and surface temperature in arid and cold region of Northwest China: A case study in Gansu Province. Acta Ecologica Sinica 09: 2414-2420 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Ye JX, 2011. Spatial information research for temperature and precipitation climate data in the Hengduan Mountains. J Anhui Agric Sci 19: 11767-11770 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Yuan X, Li EY, 1990. Spatial variability of reference crop requirements. J Hydr Eng 2: 33-37 (in Chinese).

Zhang J, Li DL, Wang W, 2008. Influence of terrain on precipitation in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during summer monsoon. Scientia Geographica Sinica 02: 235-240 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Zhang YL, Shao ZX, 2012. Review on the regional cultivation of grape in Yunnan Province. Anhui Agric Sci Bull 21: 109-111 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Zhou SQ, Xue GY, Zhou LF, Sun Q, Kang N, 2006. The stepwise interpolation approach of precipitation for spatial analysis based on GIS. Acta Meteorol Sinica 64 (1): 100-111 (in Chinese with English abstract).

How to Cite
Wang, Y., Wang, L., Liu, X., Li, Y., Wang, X., & Fang, Y. (2018). Climatic regionalization of wine grapes in the Hengduan Mountain region of China. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 16(2), e0303.
Agricultural environment and ecology