Methodologies for transferring DNA into eukaryotic microalgae: a review
AbstractAgitation with glass beads, electroporation and microparticle bombardment are all used to transfer exogenous genes into unicellular eukaryotic algae (microalgae). For nuclear transformation most researchers use glass beads techniques or, to a lesser extent, electroporation, while for chloroplast transformation bombardment is often used. Glass bead agitation and electroporation require the removal of the cell wall while bombardment can be performed with intact microalgae. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been the microalga most commonly transformed, but success has also been reported with Volvox carteri, Chlorella spp., Dunaliella salina, Haematococcus pluvialis, Euglena gracilis, diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula saprophila, Cyclotella cryptica and Thalassiosira weissflogii), dinoflagellates (Amphidinium klebsii and Symbiodinium microadriaticum) and red algae (Porphyridium spp and Cyanidioschyzon merolae). The first C. reinhardtii transformants produced by making use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens have also been reported. A comparison of the above methods might help provide the information necessary to successfully transform further microalgal species.
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