Oral and contact toxicity of the extract obtained with hexane from Achyrocline satureioides on larvae and adult honey bees

  • Diana C. Pimentel-Betancurt National University of Río Cuarto, Faculty of Exact, Physico-Chemical and Natural Sciences, Dept. Microbiology and Immunology. X5804BYA Río Cuarto
  • Natalia V. Tonello National University of Río Cuarto, Faculty of Exact, Physico-Chemical and Natural Sciences, Dept. Chemistry. X5804BYA Río Cuarto
  • Francisco Padilla-Alvarez University of Córdoba, Campus of Rabanales, Dept. Zoology. 14071 Córdoba
  • María F. Paletti-Rovey National University of Río Cuarto, Faculty of Exact, Physico-Chemical and Natural Sciences, Dept. Microbiology and Immunology. X5804BYA Río Cuarto
  • María M. Oliva National University of Río Cuarto, Faculty of Exact, Physico-Chemical and Natural Sciences, Dept. Microbiology and Immunology. X5804BYA Río Cuarto
  • Juan M. Marioli National University of Río Cuarto, Faculty of Exact, Physico-Chemical and Natural Sciences, Dept. Chemistry. X5804BYA Río Cuarto
Keywords: Apis mellifera, antibacterial activity, hexanic extract, Paenibacillus larvae


Aim of study: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the hexanic extract (HE) of Achyrocline satureioides on Paenibacillus larvae - a gram-positive spore-forming bacillus that affects the larval stage and causes American Foulbrood (AFB) - and its oral and contact toxicity on larvae and adult honey bees.

Area of study: A. satureioides plants were collected in Santa Monica (32° 05’ 29” S, 64° 36’ 54” W, Córdoba. Argentina). The larvae and adults of Apis mellifera were obtained from the experimental apiary of the University of Córdoba, Spain.

Material and methods: P. larvae 9 was previously isolated and identified in the Laboratory of General Microbiology (Dept. of Microbiology, National University of Río Cuarto, Argentina). The HE was obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of HE was determined by a microdilution method. This concentration and 2 ½ MIC were used for in vitro toxicity tests. Oral toxicity was tested on larvae, feeding them with both concentrations of the HE, while on adult bees the HE was spread to determine contact toxicity.

Main results: The HE showed antimicrobial activity, the MIC obtained was 0.4 μg/mL. The HE presented very low toxicity at the MIC and 2 ½ MIC, with survival percentages to be around 95% for adult bees and larvae.

Research highlights: The results show that this extract could be used for the development of an alternative product for a safe and effective treatment of AFB.


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Author Biography

Diana C. Pimentel-Betancurt, National University of Río Cuarto, Faculty of Exact, Physico-Chemical and Natural Sciences, Dept. Microbiology and Immunology. X5804BYA Río Cuarto


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How to Cite
Pimentel-Betancurt, D. C., Tonello, N. V., Padilla-Alvarez, F., Paletti-Rovey, M. F., Oliva, M. M., & Marioli, J. M. (2021). Oral and contact toxicity of the extract obtained with hexane from Achyrocline satureioides on larvae and adult honey bees. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 19(3), e0504. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2021193-16302
Animal health and welfare